A Complete Guide to ASTM D4970 ISO 12945 Martindale Pilling Test Method

When your textile laboratory needs to conduct a Martindale fabric pilling test, it is necessary to determine the test standards, such as ASTM D4970, ISO 12945-2, GB/T4802.2. Understanding the specific operational steps of the testing instrument is also essential. This article will guide you through the basic steps of the Martindale fabric pilling test.

Principle of the Martindale Fabric Pilling Test

Circular specimens are rubbed against the same material fabric under a given pressure, following a Lissajous figure motion trajectory. After reaching the specified number of turns, the pilling grade of the sample is assessed.

Martindale Pilling Test Standards

ASTM D4970, ISO 12945-2 etc.

Procedure of the Martindale Fabric PillingTest

Turn on the power switch of the instrument, and the touch screen enters the standby interface. At the standby interface, you can choose the language type (for example, select English). Enter the function menu interface as shown below. In this interface, you can set the end reminder buzzer time, or click on the function menu to set the counting method and speed.

count and speed setting screen

Taking the addition counting as an example, click the addition counting button to enter the interface shown below.

Overall Setting
You can set the required number of turns for each station individually or as a whole. Press the reset button to initialize the current number of turns (remaining turns). Press the delete button to clear the settings of all stations. After setting, press the start button. The machine starts counting up to the set number of turns until any station completes, then a buzzer will sound. If you continue the experiment, you need to restart the instrument.

Prepare the samples and abrasives according to the standard method.

Clamp the sample on the rubbing head as required by the method standard, with the test surface facing out. When the tested fabric is no more than 500g/m2, place a piece of polyester foam plastic between the sample and the rubbing head; for fabrics over 500g/m2 or composite fabrics, no foam plastic is needed. Nine samples are clamped under the same tension.

Place the felt and abrasive on the nine sample tables. Place the loading weights on the abrasives, then tighten the abrasive tightening rings to fix them on the sample tables, ensuring that all nine abrasives are under the same tension.

Place the rubbing heads on the abrasives (refer to figure 2) and insert the connecting rod through the guide plate’s station hole into the rubbing head. Whether to add a sample weight or disc depends on the requirements of each test method.

After ensuring the Lissajous movement curve specifications are accurate, touch the start key. The instrument starts working until the rubbing of a station is completed and the count is met, at which point the instrument automatically stops and a buzzer sounds.

Remove the samples and compare them in the grading box against standard samples to assess the pilling degree of each sample.

If you are preparing for the next test, you must touch the reset button to return the instrument to its initial state.

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Martindale pilling and abrasion tester


Q: What is the daily maintenance of Martindale Tester?

A: Add oil on the linear bearing every half a month in case of rusting.


how to add oil

Related Resources

Ultimate Guide to Martindale Test

Understanding Fabric Pilling

Understanding Fabric Abrasion



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