What is fabric strength and how to test

In the textile industry, fabric strength testing is essential for ensuring the performance and durability of finished garments. The mechanical properties of fabrics, including their deformation and response to external forces, play a pivotal role in determining their resistance to damage and overall durability. Additionally, these properties are instrumental in evaluating how effectively fabrics can withstand the diverse stresses and strains they encounter during use. Moreover, understanding these properties is crucial for ensuring the longevity and performance of fabrics in various applications. In this blog post, we will explore the various testing methods, equipment, and applicable standards for fabric strength testing.

Fabric mechanics test purpose:

The mechanical properties of the fabric refer to the deformation of the fabric under the action of external forces and the characteristics of the changes that are destroyed to ensure that the finished garment is the basis of good performance. The fabric has resistance to external forces, and the ability to resist damage directly affects its durability. During production and experimentation, the fabric often suffers damage due to external forces. The damage’s role and extent depend on the specific external forces. For instance, garments may stretch when someone pulls them, subjecting them to tensile forces. If the stretching force continues to increase beyond the fabric’s resistance, it can lead to the clothing rupturing under the powerful external load.

Fabric stretch break, tear, bursting, and wear resistance is an essential durable performance of the fabric, directly related to the life of the fabric.

Electronic Fabric Strength tester

This strength machine also called a universal testing machine (UTM), is used in line with a computer. Its main features are fast response speed, high control accuracy, low noise, and simple operation. It is suitable for various textile stretching, tearing, bursting, fixed elongation, fixed load, suture slip, stripping, and other mechanical properties testing or UTM testing.

Electronic Textile Strength Analysis machine testing methods and principles

● Tensile properties of fabrics


(1) Determination of breaking strength and elongation at break (strip method)
Principle: Firstly, we clamp the ends of the fabric specimen of the specified size between the two jaws of the strength machine. Then, we stretch it at a constant elongation speed until it fractures.

Fabric stretching (strip method) schematic diagram for fabric strength testing

(2) Determination of breaking strength (grab sample method)
Principle: Clamp the central part of the specimen with a specified clamp size and stretch it at a constant elongation rate until it breaks. Record the breaking strength.

grab method

●Fabric tearing performance


(1) Tearing strength of trouser-shaped specimen (single seam)
Principle: Begin by securely holding the two legs of the trouser-shaped specimen, aligning the cut line between the upper and lower jigs to ensure it is straight. Activate the instrument to apply tension in the direction of the incision. Record the tearing strength as the tearing progresses up to the specified length.
(2) Tearing strength of the trapezoidal specimen
Principle: Draw a trapezoid on the specimen and clamp the trapezoid’s two non-parallel sides with the strength tester’s clamp. First, apply a continually increasing force to the specimen, leading the tear to spread along the specimen’s width. Following that, determine the average maximum tearing force in Newton.

Diagram of tearing of trouser-shaped and trapezoidal specimens

(3) Tearing force of tongue-shaped specimen (double seam)
Principle: Two parallel cuts form a tongue-shaped specimen in the rectangular specimen. To begin, clamp the tongue-shaped specimen into one clamp of the tensile tester. Simultaneously and symmetrically, clamp the remaining part of the specimen into another clamp while ensuring the tongue-shaped specimen remains secured in one clamp. This step guarantees proper alignment and stability throughout the testing process. Take care to keep the two incision lines straight and parallel. Next, apply tension in the direction of the incision to simulate tearing. Continuously record the tearing strength until reaching the specified length.
(4) Tearing strength of wing-shaped specimen (single seam)
Principle: A specimen with two wings cut into a specific shape is clamped in the direction of the inclined wings. Mechanical tension is applied to concentrate the tension at the incision, promoting tearing in the expected direction. The tearing strength up to the specified length is then recorded.

Fabric bursting performance


The principle of the steel ball method involves clamping the specimen in the circular specimen clamp with a fixed base. By vertically moving the spherical top bar towards the specimen at a constant speed, gradual deformation occurs until the specimen eventually breaks. Subsequently, the maximum breaking strength is measured to assess the specimen’s resistance to force.

Fabric bursting diagram

Fabric stripping strength performance
Principle: Clamp the specimen between the two jaws of the tensile tester along the clamping line. Gradually pull apart the two jaws of the tensile tester, causing the bonding points of the specimen in the weft or warp direction to undergo successive stress. The stress gradually transfers along the peeling line until the specimen is fully stripped off.

Fabric stripping diagram

Fabric suture slippage performance
(1) Constant slip amount
Principle: Hold the specimen with a gripper, stretch the seamed and unseamed parts of the same specimen on the tensile tester, and record the force-elongation curves of the seamed and unseamed specimens at the same starting point in the same horizontal coordinate. Find the point where the distance between the two curves parallel to the elongation axis equals the specified slip, and read the force value corresponding to this point as the slip resistance.
(2) Constant load method
Principle: To begin, fold a rectangular specimen, sew it along the width direction, and subsequently cut it along the crease. Proceed by securely holding the specimen using a gripper. Apply a tensile load perpendicular to the seam direction. This allows for the measurement of the amount of slip generated when applying the specified load.

Fabric seam tensile properties


(1) Seam strength by strip method
Principle: The testing procedure involves applying a constant elongation rate perpendicular to the seam direction. Throughout the testing process, the specimen undergoes stretching until the seam in the middle sustains damage. Subsequently, the maximum force value at which the seam damage occurs is meticulously recorded. This recording serves the purpose of conducting subsequent analysis and evaluation.

(2) Seam strength by gripping sample method
Principle: To assess seam strength, grip the middle part of the specimen (which includes the seam) using a clamp of the specified size. Then, stretch it at a constant elongation rate along the direction perpendicular to the seam trace until the seam ultimately breaks. Record the maximum force value of the seam damage.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsj2y462O7s

Electronic fabric strength testing machine applicable standards


Tensile performance:
GB/T 3923.1-2013/ISO 13934-1:1999 Textiles Fabric tensile properties Part 1: Determination of breaking strength and elongation at break (strip sample method)
GB/T 3923.2-2013/ISO 13934-2:1999 Textiles Tensile properties of fabrics Part 2: Determination of breaking strength (grab sample method)
ASTM D5035-1995, ASTM D5034-09 (2017), ASTM D4964-96 (2004), etc.
Tearing performance:
ISO 13937-2:2000 Textiles Fabric tearing properties Part 2: Pant type specimen (single seam) tearing strength
ISO 9073-4:1997 Textiles Fabric tearing properties Part 3: Determination of tearing strength of trapezoidal specimens
GB/T 3917.4-2009 Textiles Fabric tearing properties Part 4: Tongue-shaped specimens (double seam) tearing strength determination
GB/T 3917.5-2009 Textiles Fabric tearing properties Part 5: Wing-shaped specimens (single seam) tearing strength determination
ASTM D1424-96, ASTM D1424-09, ASTM D2261-13, ASTM D5587-15, ISO 13937-1, etc.
Bursting performance:
GB/T 19976-2005 Textiles Determination of breaking strength by steel ball method

Stripping strength
FZ/T 80007.1-2006 Test method for peel strength of garments with adhesive lining
ASTM D3936-17, FZ/T 60011, etc.
Tensile properties of suture.
GB/T 13773.1-2008/ISO 13935-1:1999 Textiles Tensile properties of fabrics and their products at the seams Part 1: Determination of seam strength by strip method
GB/T 13773.2-2008/ISO 13935-2:1999 Textiles Tensile properties of fabrics and their products at the seam Part 2: Determination of seam strength by the grab sample method
ISO 13935-1 etc.
Suture slippage properties.
GB/T 13772.1-2008/ ISO 13936-1-2004 Textiles Determination of seam slip resistance of woven fabrics Part 1: Fixed seam opening method
GB/T 13772.2-2008/ ISO 13936-2:2004 Textiles Determination of yarn slip resistance at seams of woven fabrics Part 2: Constant load method
ISO 13936-1 etc.

Please contact us if you need information about equipment for the Textile Strength Analysis to analyze strength of fabric, yarns, and other materials!

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